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Requirements of object-oriented languages

Before a language can be called object-oriented, it must provide four basic capabilities to developers:

1. Encapsulation — the capability to store related information, whether data or methods, together in an object
2. Aggregation — the capability to store one object inside of another object
3. Inheritance — the capability of a class to rely upon another class (or number of classes) for some of its properties and methods
4. Polymorphism — the capability to write one function or method that works in a variety of different ways

Abstraction: The process of picking out (abstracting) common features of objects and procedures.

Class: A category of objects. The class defines all the common properties of the different objects that belong to it.

Information hiding: The process of hiding details of an object or function. Information hiding is a powerful programming technique because it reduces complexity.

Interface: the languages and codes that the applications use to communicate with each other and with the hardware.

Messaging: Message passing is a form of communication used in parallel programming and object-oriented programming.

Object: a self-contained entity that consists of both data and procedures to manipulate the data.

Procedure: a section of a program that performs a specific task.

These concepts are the four main requirements of OOP world and in software term, they are called four main Object Oriented Programming (OOP) Concepts.
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